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Design of concrete structures according to Eurocode 2

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New features in BETONexpress 05/2015:

      Flat slab, Punching shear
    Flat slab design
    Foundation Bearing resistance
    Fundaments of Steel columns
    Water basins
    Basement walls
    Bearing walls
    Walls with horizontal distributed load
 

Flat slab, Punching shear
Design of slab section in punching shear according to Eurocode 2 6.4. Verification of the shear capacity at the control perimeters around a rectangular column. If the design shear vEd exceeds the shear capacity vRd,c the program computes the necessary shear (links) reinforcement.

Flat slab design

Design of flat slab with inner span dimensions Lx, Ly and outer span dimensions Lx and Ly.
Specify Yes or No if you want to use shear reinforcement.
If Yes, then the appropriate shear reinforcement will be computed if the shear force VEd>VEd,c.
If No is checked for shear reinforcement, the punching shear is checked so VEd>VRd,c.
If design is not verified, a message to increase the slab thickness is shown.
 

The bending moments of the flat slab panels are apportioned in column and middle strip according to Eurocode 2 Annex I as follows:
   
Negative moments: column strip 70%, middle strip 30%
   
Positive moments :  column strip 55%, middle strip 45%
The column strip in both x and y direction is equal to min (Lx,Ly)/2.


Foundation Bearing resistance

The basis for the design of foundations is the bearing resistance of the soil.
The design bearing resistance can be calculated using analytical or semi-empirical methods. Annex D of Eurocode 7, EN1997:2004 describes a method of obtaining the design bearing strength of the soil.

The methods of Annex D Eurocode 7, EN1997:2004 for drained and undrained conditions are implemented in the program.
The design bearing strength of the soil is estimated for EQU, STR and GEO conditions.
The computation of design bearing strength is for drained and undrained soil conditions.  
For drained soil conditions the important soil property is the angle of shearing resistance k [] and the cohesion intercept c[kPA].
For undrained soil conditions the important soil property is the undrained strength cu [kPa].
For the computation of design bearing strength other parameters are the dimensions and depth of the footing, as well as the loading and the load eccentricities. 
In all the designs of footings and retaining walls the  utility has been added.
Click the button and the design of fundaments or in the design of retaining walls and you get into a calculation window for design bearing resistance.


Fundaments of Steel columns

The concrete footing of steel structures has to be designed to resist soil pressure for maximum vertical load and it must have enough weight to resist uplift (from wind or seismic forces).
You can design Pin and Fixed end column foundations.
You can also specify if the foundation has an horizontal tie to take the horizontal outwards forces or not.

Loading on the fundament

The final actions after multiplication with safety factors (G and Q) Eurocode-1990-1-1, Table A1.2
  

For downwards loading usual values are: G =1.35 (unfavourable), Q=1.50.
For upwards (uplift) loading usual values are:
G =0.90 (favourable), Q=0.00.

Steel Tie and Passive earth pressure

The high horizontal forces acting at the base are acting outwards as a result of bending in the columns due to vertical loading on the roof. This is resisted in two ways.

Steel tie at column base
A tie cast into the floor slab connected to the base of the columns. This should be considered more safe method to resist the horizontal forces at the base of the columns.

   Passive earth pressure on the side of the foundation
In this case the earth filling and compacting on the side of the foundation must be performed carefully, so that the passive earth pressure is not reduced. The fundament transverse width By and the height Bh are used to compute the active area for passive earth pressure.

If you pressed the predimensioning, the foundation dimensions (if not checked) are adjusted by the program so the fundament weight is enough to resist uplift forces. The width By and the height are also for adequate passive earth force to resist the horizontal base force outwards.


Water basins, swimming pools

Design of rectangular water basins. The solution is for a 2-dimensional cross section across the smallest dimension (width) of the basin.
The basic dimensions are the width of the basin B [m], the length of the basin L [m] and the depth of the basin H [m].

The basin is assumed to sit on elastic ground and is analyzed with finite element analysis. The basin walls are subdivided in 2 beam elements of length H/2.

The basin floor is modelled with 16 beam elements with nodal points connected to the ground with elastic springs. The stiffness of the elastic springs is computed from the Winklers foundation modulus Ks [kN/m2/m].


The loading conditions include all the load cases according to Eurocode 0 (EQU, STR and GEO) for:


    
Empty water basin (only earth pressure)
    
Filled water basin without earth pressure
    
Filled water basin with earth pressure
The reinforced concrete design includes also serviceability control with limit crack width specified by the user.


Basement walls

                                           

There are two kinds of basement walls:
Walls with only the bottom restrained for lateral movement.
Walls with restrained the bottom and the top for lateral movement.

In the first case the sliding of the wall is prevented due to the retraining of the base in movement. The active earth pressure is computed as usual using Coulombs (1776) or Rankines (1857) theory, Eurocode 7 9.5.1.

In the second case (when the wall top is also prevented from lateral movement) the active earth pressure conditions are obtained for Ko in rest conditions according to Jaky (1948), Eurocode 7 9.5.2.


Bearing walls
                                                                          

Bearing walls in vertical or horizontal load on the top without any earth pressure.
The horizontal load on the top can be defined from Eurocode 1-1-1:2001 Table 6.12 according to National Annexes
.
The horizontal load on the top can be also defined according to Eurocode 1-1-7:2006, in case of impact load.


Walls with horizontal distributed load


In case of wind loading the wind pressure is according to Eurocode 1-1-4:2005.

 


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